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Spanish Lesson 04

Friday, August 06, 2004

Learn Spanish

Vocabulary

Practice: < Recognition | Recall | None | Shuffle >
comerto eat
conducirto drive
conocerto be aquainted with
creerto believe
charlarto chat, to talk
deber + infinitiveto have to + infinitive
decidirto decide
declararto declare
dejarto leave
enviarto send
escribirto write
escucharto listen
esquiarto ski
fumarto smoke
leerto read
llegarto arrive
pagarto pay
recibirto receive
salirto leave
solicitarto solicit
tomarto take
traducirto translate
venderto sell
viajarto travel
vivirto live
la ocupaciónoccupation
la profesiónprofession
la cervezabeer
el correomail
el edificobuilding
la especialidadspecialty
la firmasignature
la fotografía, la fotophotograph
el goviernogovernment
la izquierdaleft
la derecharight
la montañamountain
el mundoworld
el (la) otro (-a)other
la palabraword
la playabeach
la propinatip
el pueblovillage
el restauranteresturant
el solsun
el teléfonotelephone
el televisión, el televisortelevision
la tiendastore
el trabajojob
el trentrain
el vinowine
excelenteexcellent
famoso (-a)famous
generalmentegenerally
gratisfree (of cost)
malo (-a)bad
ocupado (-a)busy
pequeño (-a)small
grandebig
perfecto (-a)perfect
pobrepoor
primero (-a)first
rico (-a)rich
casialmost
lástimait's a pity
porquebecause
siemprealways
sinwithout
vamoslet's go
a vecesat times

Ordinal Numbers

Practice: < Recognition | Recall | None | Shuffle >

The ordinal numbers in Spanish have masculine and feminine forms, differing in the -o and -a endings. A trick spot regards primero and tercero, which each drop the final -o before a masculine singular noun. For example: El primer año. (The first year.)

primero (-a)first
segundo (-a)second
tercero (-a)third
cuarto (-a)fourth
quinto (-a)fifth
sexto (-a)sixth
séptimo (-a)seventh
octavo (-a)eighth
noveno (-a)ninth
décimo (-a)tenth

The Infinative

Practice: < Recognition | Recall | None | Shuffle >

The infinative of a verb is the unconjugated form that appears in the vocabulary. It generally translates as to ..., for example:
progresar = to progress. There are many constructions in Spanish that use the infinative form of the verb.

estudiarto study
comerto eat
escribirto write
enseñarto learn
cenarto eat dinner
necesitarto need
trabajarto work

Present Indicative of -er Verbs

Practice: < Recognition | Recall | None | Shuffle >
aprenderto learn
aprendoI learn
aprendesyou learn
aprendehe/she/you (form.) learn
aprendemoswe learn
aprendéisyou (fam. pl.) learn
aprendenyou (form. pl.)/they learn
creerto belive, to think
leerto read
beberto drink
comerto eat
leoI read
leesyou read
leemoswe read
bebesyou drink
bebenyou (form. pl.)/they drink
bebéisyou (fam. pl.) drink
comoI eat
comesyou eat
comeyou (form.)/he/she eats
comenyou (form. pl.)/they eat

Present Indicative of -ir Verbs

Practice: < Recognition | Recall | None | Shuffle >
escribirto write
escriboI write
escribesyou write
escribeyou (form.)/he/she writes
escribimoswe write
escribísyou (fam. pl.) write
escribenyou (form. pl.)/they write
abrirto open
asistirto attend (classes)
decidirto decide
vivirto live
abroI open
abresyou open
abreyou (form.)/he/she opens
abrimoswe open
abrísyou (fam. pl.) open
abrenthey open
asistoI attend
asistesyou attend
asisteyou (form.)/he/she attends
asistimoswe attend
asistísyou (fam. pl.) attend
asistenyou (form. pl.)/they attend
decidoI decide
decidesyou decide
decideyou (form.)/he/she decides
decidimoswe decide
decidísyou (fam. pl.) decide
decidenyou (form. pl.)/they decide
vivoI live
vivesyou live
viveyou (form.)/he/she lives
vivimoswe live
vivísyou (fam. pl.) live
vivenyou (form. pl.)/they live

The Personal a

Practice: < Recognition | Recall | None | Shuffle >

The personal a has no equivalent in English. It is used before a direct object that refers to a specific person. It is not used if the direct object is not a person. It is also not used with the verb tener, which you will meet in the next lesson. The personal a is subject to the contraction discussed earlier.

Yo invito a mis hermanos.I invite my brothers.
Traigo mis documentos de identidad.I bring my ID.
Tengo mi hermano en el carro.I have my brother in the car.
Yo invito al profesor.I invite the professor.

Possessive Adjectives

Practice: < Recognition | Recall | None | Shuffle >

Possessive adjectives preceed the nouns they refer to, mi libro rojo. They also agree in number (and gender in the case of nuestro and vuestro), with the noun they refer to, mis libros rojos. This is important, they agree in number not with the owner, but with what is owned.

The possessive adjectives su and sus, have several possible meanings. Su libro could mean any of his, hers, your (Ud.), its, or their book. When the meaning is unclear you can instead use the de él, de Ud., etc. form.
el libro de él (His book)
el libro de Uds. (Your (form. pl.) book)

mimy (single object)
mismy (plural object)
tuyour (single object)
tusyour(plural object)
suyour (form.)/his/hers/its/their (single object)
susyour (form.)/his/hers/its/their (plural object)
nuestro (-a)our (single object)
nuestros (-as)our (plural object)
vuestro (-a)your (fam. pl.) (single object)
vuestros (-as)your (fam. pl.) (plural object)
mi computadoramy computer
mis computadorasmy computers
nuestras plumasour pens
nuestros librosour books
la casa de ellaher house
la madre de los hijosthe mother of the children
mi cuadernomy notebook
mis amigosmy friends
nuestros amigosour (masc.) friends (masc.)
nuestros amigosour (fem.) friends (masc.) (tricky eh?)
nuestro amigoour (masc.) friend (masc.)
nuestra amigaour (masc.) friend (fem.)
¿De qué color es mi libro?What color is my book?

posted by Blair Fraser at 8:54 am | 0 comments